Donald P Leach. Santa Clara University. Albert Paul Malvino .. individual who wishes to learn the principles of digital circuits and then apply them to useful. (Ch 3); Vulnerability in tourism (Ch 6); Vulnerability in the coastal zone (Ch 7); Landau, Seth – General coordinatio Electronic Principles 7th edition by Albert. Digital Principles and Application by Leach & Malvino - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering.

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Anil K Maini, Varsha Agarwal: Electronic Devices and Circuits, Wiley, 2. Donald P Leach, Albert Paul Malvino & Goutam Saha: Digital Principles and. Digital Electronics: Principles, Devices and Applications Anil K. Maini any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or. Director of Digital Content: Thomas Scaife, Ph.D Electronic principles/Albert Malvino, David J. Bates. Albert P. Malvino was an electronics technician while.

Skip to content Skip to search. Login to add to list. McGraw-Hill,c] Physical Description ix, p. Tags What are tags? To include a comma in your tag, surround the tag with double quotes. These online bookshops told us they have this item: Open to the public Book; Illustrated English Show 0 more libraries Separate different tags with a comma. Then set up a personal list of libraries from your profile page by clicking on your user name at the top right of any screen.

Defence Science and Technology Group. RN Pal Retd. RV Rajakumar, Prof. A Chakraborty, Prof. PP Chakraborty, Prof. D Datta, Prof. S Bannerjee, Prof. P K Biswas, Prof. S S Pathak, Prof. S Mukhopadhyaya, Prof.

AS Dhar, Prof. I Chakraborty, Prof. P Mandal, Prof. S Mahapatra, Prof. But for the paucity of space, I would have named many others. I acknowledge the benefit derived from my interaction with different batches of students while teaching the Digital Electronics subject-three years at Institute of Engineering and Management, Kolkata and over six years at IIT Kharagpur.

The double arrow shown in Fig. The number 8 in parentheses means that there are eight wires. An 8-bit register requires a cable having at least 8 wires. This shift right process is repeated. Instead of drawing all 8 or 16 or 32 wires on a schematic.

For a stored number to be extracted from this register. This is a bit bidirectional data bus. The eight wires represented by this arrow are called a data bus.

The price paid for this gain in speed is an increase in complexity. One of the most common systems for memory makes use of the fact that a magnetic material can be magnetized with two different orientations. Magnetic and Optical Memory Any memory element must be capable of storing or retaining only two logic levels.

A number of devices that utilize magnetic and optical storage are illustrated in Fig. Nearly all computer systems have available both a serial port and a parallel port. Digital Principles and Applications On the other hand. The computer connector where data is entered or extracted is frequently called a port. In optical memory data is encoded in binary by making two different kinds of reflecting surface on a spiral track of a circular disk.

A special pointed source of light falls on the surface and intensity of reflected light gives infonnation about the data stored. A digital circuit designed to keep track of a number of events. The input to this counter is the rectangular waveform labeled clock.

In other words. The counter in Fig. L How many bits are there in this binary number? If it is stored in the register in Fig. Each time the clock signal changes state from low to high. When we speak of a microprocessor. It is similar to a storage register. How long would it take to enter an 8. Look at the binary representation of the decimal number 9 in Table 1.

A clock having a small circle bubble in the input side would count clock transitions from high to low. J Begin b End a A counter constructed with n flip-flops. From Eq. Digital Principles and Applications As an example of how this circuit might be used. After the first clock transition from low to high. After the second transition. The binary number Oll O is equal to decimal 6. To count higher. Multiplication x and division 7 of digital numbers are accomplished with other digital circuits.

The waveform in Fig. The clock signal is initially held low. Logic operations will usually include inversion NOT. The tenn 2" means 2 raised to the nth power. I 00 lying in between. A four-flip-flop counter can count decimal numbers from Oto For now. Now the clock is allowed to "run" for six clock periods. Solution Arithmetic logic Unit An arithmetic logic unit ALU is a digital circuit capable ofperfonning both arithmetic and logic operations.

The ALU represented in Fig. Both the A and B inputs are 4-bit buses. The desired function appears at the F bus. In addition. To illustrate. For this particular circuit. The two numbers to be added are represented by the proper logic levels at A and B. Digital Principles A bus and the B bus. The digital levels on the S bus detennine which operation is to be performed.

By changing the control levels at the S bus. Here are some of the possibilities: In the event the sum of the two numbers generates a carry. Here's how we might do it with decimal numbers. The equivalent decimal numbers are shown in parentheses.

A in the TTL family is a 4-bit comparator similar to Fig. Operation of the circuit can be explained by using the "switch" as a model. There are tour AND operations. There is a single output line which is connected to the computer system input port. It's easier to see by writing the data as follows: This digital circuit simply connects the single data input line to one of the n output lines.

Any information entered into a digital system must be in the form of a digital number. The encoder shown in Fig. In the case of a computer.

The digital circuit used for this purpose is a demultiplexer. The digital circuit used for this operation is a multiplexer.

Each line is used to shift digital data serially. A circuit that changes data into the required digital form is called an encoder. Changing the C bus levels will connect a different input. Useful information can be obtained from the computer by examining the visual displays on a cathode-ray tube CRT or by reading material produced on a printer.

Data from that particular input is then entered into the computer. The other two outputs will be low. The opposite of multiplex is demultiplex. Comparison Comparing the magnitude of two numbers is an important logical operation. There are n input lines. Clearly there is a requirement to connect multiple input devices. It is capable of comparing two digital numbers and indicating whether the magnitude of one is greater than.

Thus serial data from the computer output port can be directed to different destinations. The circuit in Fig. Each setting of the digital control levels on the C bus will connect the switch to one of the input lines.

The term multiplex means "many into one. It has 16 input lines and a single output line. The result will be decimal 4.

Digital Principles 11 One. The decoder in Fig..

There are many different types of encoders and decoders. It may be used with a keyboard. A number of them will be discussed in detail in Chapter What are the digital output levels of the encoder in Fig. How many flip-flops are required to construct a digital counter capable of counting events? What binary number will be stored in the counter in Fig.

As shown. State whether or not the ALU in Fig. Basic Configurations A microcomputer designed to control a given machine. Digital Principles and Applications 1. The computer analyzes these present condition signals. Digital Output ' utput The minicomputer illustrated in Fig.

A microcomputer system might be designed to irrigate the lawn area of a park. Uses What can a digital computer be used for? Numerical computation is surely one possible use. The logic portion of the ALU means the computer can be used to make logical decisions. The control signals produced by the computer appear as the output bus and are sent to an output device. The system "sensors" in this case would be 1 a probe to detect soil moisture and 2 a light detector to distinguish between daylight Controlled IA machine process and darkness.

A large mainframe computer system capable of storing and manipulating massive quantities of data. A computer intended to perform a very specific task. Watering is to be done only at night. Computers with greater capacities. The computer would monitor or sfgnals from the two sensors. Beyond these basic functions. The input bus is serviced with aMUX. The inclusion of an ALU with additional logic circuits provides arithmetic capabilities addition. Small portable. The controlled entity must then send signals indicating its present condition back to the computer via an input device and via the input bus.

One workstation must then be provided for each user. A keyboard for typewritten entry of alphanumeric information A disk drive or tape drive for entering data stored in magnetic form A microphone for voice input The DEMUX on the output bus allows numerous possibilities for receiving information from the computer: The familiar CRT for a visual display A printer to provide printed material called hard copy A disk or tape drive to record data in magnetic form Perhaps a speaker for audio information A minicomputer such as this can be used for many different tasks.

The CPU is therefore the primary center for computation and. The block diagram in Fig. It is constructed using an ALU along with a number of registers and counters. A keyboard and a CRT are the minimum components required at each workstation. It can be used as a word processor. Let's take a look inside a typical digital computer. The digital circuits used to construct maxicomputer systems are necessarily more complicated than minicomputer systems.

It will generally have a large number of users. The clock signal is usually a periodic. A memory block used. A program is a detailed list of CPU operations written by a human programmer. A digital signal refened to as the system clock is used as a reference to time when specific operations take place. The CPU can then "fetch" from memory one instruction at a time. The clock provides a "heartbeat" for the computer. The CPU communicates with the "outside world" by means of the input encoders and the output decoders.

It will execute the instruction and then fetch the next instruction. Using a crystal in the clock circuit allows the accuracy and stability of the clock frequency. This greatly improves system efficiency as well as speed of operation. With this repeated fetchand-execute cycle. A block diagram of a digital computer is started by drawing the CPU and clock as shown in Fig. As seen in Fig.

A direct memory access DMA block is generally included to alleviate this problem. This set of instructions is called a program. Digital Principles and Applications decision making. This is the area where the information being processed by the computer is stored. The program is Program Data entered into the computer.

This configuration is sometimes quite inefficient. The programmer decides what the computer is to do and when it should be done. Since the CPU takes "reads" data from memory. All the operations within the CPU. A portion of the memory block in Fig. The CPU operates at a much faster rate than most external devices.

By contrast. Before data can be entered into the computer. While information is being transfened via the DMA. When the CPU is ready. Numerous computers have been designed. Amicroprocessoris often used as the basic IC around which amicrocomputerorminicomputer is constructed.

This request-acknowledge sequence is often called handshaking. This block diagram is representative of the architecture of many digital computers. The controller is the unit that decides which block "goes first" establishes priorities. Improvements to this basic IC have led to the development of a family of microprocessor units including the and the All of these blocks are operated in synchronism with the clock.

A similar handshaking must occur when the CPU is ready to deliver data to an external device. In the remainder of this text. The resistors and transistors necessary for each digital. The purpose of this section is to provide a general understanding of a digital computer. The wafer is divided checkerboard fashion into or so rectangular areas. Each area will become a single chip.

The entire circuit resides on a tiny piece of semiconductor material called a chip. Why is the system clock considered the heart of a digital computer system? What is a computer program? What functions are ca1Tied out in an ALU?

What is the purpose of the DMA in Fig. The semiconductor wafer is typically a slice of monocrystalline silicon about 0. Digital Principles Up to chips 8 to 15 cm D 0. An individual digital circuit may have only a few components. Each chip is a digital circuit.

Some additional packages for ICs are shown in Fig. After the processing steps are completed. The package illustrated here is a pin dual-inline package DIP. In this fashion. Each chip is then mounted in a suitable package. For the moment. MOS is slower. Bipolar Transistors There are two important digital circuit families constructed using bipolar transistors: ICs having more than 12 but fewer than gates are called medium-scale integration MS!

If there are more than gates but fewer than The two basic transistor types are bipolar and metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS. As you might expect. The 54XX devices are more rugged. Bipolar technology is faster but requires more power. An IC having more than gates is referred to as a ve. There is no absolute rule.

These two families are now widely available from a number of different manufacturers. ICs are further categorized according to the type of transistors used. In each case. There are two additional families. One might anticipate the development of other families with characteristics to match specific needs.

At this point. The lOOK The price paid for increased speed was an increase in power required to operate each gate.

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Using this device. The original also remains popular. CMOS is preferred where individual logic circuits are used and where very low power consumption is required. When there is no danger of confusion. This led to another family of devices designed to minimize power requirements-the 74LXX where the L stands for low power series.

A major improvement in the TTL series came with the development of a special transistor arrangement called a Schottky transistor. Digital Principles expensive. These devices greatly improved operating speed.

Table 1. Note that a is logically the same as a The 74LSXX family offers high-speed operation with minimal power consumption and today is preferred in most designs. With a propagation delay of only 2 ns. As with TTL. It was slow. The second system. Symbols of the first type. The 74CXX design will require considerably less operating power but will be restricted to lower operating speeds.

The necessary precautions involve voltage levels. These devices are pin-for-pin replacements for similarly numbered TTL devices. Most people presently involved in digital electronics seem to prefer the distinctive-shape system.

These new symbols are now being used on manufacturers' data sheets along with traditional symbols. Since the mids. Below is a brief introduction to the new rectangular symbols. The IEEE standard does not express a preference for either shape. More detailed information is a b c available m Appendix 7. The is a hex inverter. The term quad means "four. This symbol means "at least one input must be high in order for the output to be high. A rectangular box is used for the gate.

The truth table is shown in Fig. The triangle on the output line signifies that the output is active when low. Digital Principles A. The DIP package for this device is shown in Fig. The 1 inside the box signifies that the input must be active in order to have an active output. The new IEEE symbol is shown in part b of this figure. The DIP package and pinout for the are shown in Fig.

This illustration is often called Volts a profile.

Electronic Principles 8th Edition By Albert Malvino and David Bates

An understanding of the correct voltage levels for each digital family is absolutely essential. Measuring logic levels in the laboratory.

Which requires more power to operate? Voltages within the forbidden region are not allowed. What is generally accepted as the number of gates per chip for SSI.

Which is faster. Profiles for other circuits are Logic level profile easily obtained from manufacturers' data books. What is the significance of the triangle on the output line of the inverter in Fig. From the output profile. Output Input Look carefully at Fig. Clearly an output voltage from any 74XX circuit can be used as the input signal to any other 74XX circuit! This family of circuits is thus said to be compatible.. Look carefully at Fig.

This consideration. From the input profile. This shouldn't come as a surprise.. There are. By comparing the profiles in Figs. Noise Margin We shall end the discussion on digital IC signal levels by introducing the concept of noise margin. Both interfacing and fanout are considered in Chapter XX TTL circuit. Interconnecting different families like this is called interfacing. If it is positive. This family of circuits is thus said to be compatible. The worst-case scenario here can make V0 L.

For TTL Device 1 Device 2 An addition of any random noise voltage greater than 2.

The voltage levels are not compatible. Both ideal and realistic digital voltage levels are presented. Symbols and operation of the following basic digital circuits are presented: The flip-flop is introduced as a basic memory element. Digital Principles This introductory chapter in digital principles is intended to provide a dear concept of a digital signal in an electronic circuit or system. A signal that changes amplitude in discrete steps.

Simple ideal switch models are used to illustrate digital Circuit operation. How these levels vary with time waveforms is illustrated. These basic elements are then discussed in the contextoftheir use. AND gate. What has happened to the square wave? The combination of a Schottky diode with a bipolar transistor is called a Schottky transistor.

Make a sketch similar to Fig. What is the difference? This is similar to the popular ECL family of digital circuits. What is the width of each positive pulse? Does this resemble a series of negative pulses? Is this positive or negative logic? Directly under this waveform. CPU c. How many connections wires must be made between the microprocessor and the register if the data are truly shifted in parallel?

Use only one switch and one inverter. Draw a diagram to illustrate this. To reduce the number of connections. How many connections are needed here if this is done? Compare the times required to shift a 32bit number for each case if one shift operation requires ns.

Use the binary numbers in Table 1. With the switch in one position. How much time is required to enter or extract a bit binary number? Digital Principles 1. What if the buses were only three bits each?

ALU b. G must be high or low. ECL 1. If this is done. When not switching static. It is a specific list of instructions. What is the total power required? Repeat Prob.

Yes Describe any sensors needed. To produce f'. Power requirements are to be kept as low as possible. Aport is usually a register that serves as a place to eitp. What would you recommend? A co-worker asks you to explain the functions of the TTL designated as a and also wants to know the difference between a and a 74HC Ten This is a 4-bit number.

Arithmetic computations and logical decisions. You are designing a system that uses standard XX TTL gates. The possibilities. T Positive logic The term V0 H.


Yes c. ECL is faster but requires more power. T-TTL compatible. The output is active when low. A digital circuit having one or more input signals but only one output signal is called a gate. AND Is an action right or wrong? A motive good or bad? A conclusion true or false? Much of our thinking involves trying to find the answer to two-valued questions like these. This uses a set of textual codes that is machine computer readable.

The concept is relatively new and is useful for design. Write Boolean equations for logic circuits and draw logic circuits for Boolean equations. In Chapter 1.Let's use the simple switch models shown in Fig. It is similar to a storage register. Then you can start reading site books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no site device required.

The binary number is said to be shifted into the register in parallel. Basic Configurations A microcomputer designed to control a given machine. Write the binary number for the decimal number 7.

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